Simla Agreement India And Pakistan

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The agree­ment was the result of the two coun­tries‘ deter­mi­na­tion to “end the con­flict and con­fronta­tion that have so far affected their rela­tions.” It designed the mea­sures to be taken to fur­ther nor­malize mutual rela­tions and also defined the prin­ci­ples that should govern their future rela­tions. [4] [5] [3] The Delhi Agree­ment on the Repa­tri­a­tion of War and Civilian Internees is a tri­par­tite agree­ment between the above-​​mentioned States, signed on 28 August 1973. The agree­ment was signed by Kamal Hos­sain, Min­ister of For­eign Affairs of the Gov­ern­ment of Bangladesh, Sardar Swaran Singh, Min­ister of For­eign Affairs of India, and Aziz Ahmed, Min­ister of State for Defence and For­eign Affairs of the Gov­ern­ment of Pak­istan. [9] [10] [11] The agree­ment did not pre­vent rela­tions between the two coun­tries from dete­ri­o­rating until armed con­flict, most recently during the 1999 Kargil war. In Oper­a­tion Megh­doot in 1984, India seized the entire inhos­pitable Siachen Glacier region, where the border was not clearly defined in the agree­ment (per­haps because the area was deemed too arid to be con­tro­ver­sial); This was con­sid­ered by Pak­istan as a vio­la­tion of the Simla agree­ment. Most of the deaths that fol­lowed in the Siachen con­flict were caused by nat­ural dis­as­ters, for example. B avalanches in 2010, 2012 and 2016. The bulk of the deal was Pak­istani recog­ni­tion of Bangladesh. Other topics dis­cussed were the repa­tri­a­tion of refugees to India and the lib­er­a­tion of Bangladesh and Pak­istani nationals stranded in both coun­tries. Pak­istan has agreed to take in an unspec­i­fied number of Bangladeshi Bihari Mus­lims. Pak­istan has also agreed to return to Bangladesh nearly 150,000 to 200,000 Ben­gali cit­i­zens of the new Bangladeshi nation-​​state. The United States pro­claimed Bangladesh sov­er­eign on April 4, 1972.

This laid the foun­da­tion for the Shimla agree­ment. How­ever, Pak­istan offi­cially rec­og­nized Bangladesh on Feb­ruary 22, 1974 and China on August 31, 1974. The Simla agree­ment reads more like a com­mu­niqué than a peace agree­ment with a country that had gone to war with India. Nothing in the agree­ment has set Pak­istan a future good con­duct. It also con­tained some ridicu­lous expec­ta­tions, such as the clause that obliges both gov­ern­ments to “take all mea­sures directed in their power to pre­vent hos­tile pro­pa­ganda against each other.”

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